Forests

Myanmar is forest-clad with over 44% of forest cover. The forest types vary depending on where they occur. They are classified as mangroves and estuarine forests in the delta region; deciduous forests and Dipterocarp forests in regions with pronounced dry season; wet evergreen forest in areas of high moisture regime and rainfall; hill evergreen and sub-alpine forest at high altitudes and subtropical regions; and dry thorn forests in places with scanty rainfall.

Various types of forests mentioned above are useful in their own ways. As the interface between the land and the sea, mangrove formations are important as sources of firewood, charcoal and other minor forest products as well as providing habitat and shelter to estuarine fishery, fauna and for coastal protection. The Mixed Deciduous forests are economically the most important forest types as teak (Tectona grandis), Pyinkado (Xylia dolabriformis) and other commercial species are usually associated with these forests. No less important are the Dipterocarp forests and the evergreen forests. The first South Asian record of dipterocarp leaf fossils of the tertiary period was discovered in Myanmar (then Burma) indicating that Dipterocarps were an important constituent of the ancient flora of the region.

Forests at high altitudes and in subtropical regions are the home of conifers. Other than timber the forests produce bamboos and canes in quantity which are highly useful products for the timber industry. Generally bamboos and canes are common associates occurring as understorey of the deciduous and evergreen forests. The evergreen forests are floristically and ecologically closely allied to the Moist Dipterocarp forests commonly found in the Indo-Malaysian region. The type and form of the bamboos are the best indicator of the quality of teak stands. Curiously lower mixed deciduous forests do not have bamboos. Teak is well known for its hardiness and well adapted to it home range. It is generally fire resistant at the sapling stage and can survive repeated ground fires in the juvenile stage, recovering vegetatively through coppicing from underground root stocks, under favourable climatic condition . This is one of the valuable attributes of teak, which allows it to hold its ground in a forest where annual surface fires are usual phenomena. Ground fires are in fact maintaining the stock of teak, and teak stands owe their existence to the annual burns, otherwise the forests would normally regress to the evergreen climax stage in which teak will be unable to perpetuate itself. Hence teak stands are said to be fire-climax communities (a fire sere). Dipterocarp forests occur extensively and are well distributed through Myanmar both in the drier areas and in humid zones. These are high forests that regenerate freely and profusely.

Gregarious stands of Kanyin (Dipterocarpus sp.) with stately clean boles and towering heights are commonly encountered. The uniformity of the regeneration and good form even at the juvenile stage is a joy to any perceiving eyes with the sense of value to see how these can grow stately. Stands in the drier areas are deciduous and also fire resistant to some extent. However in the highly populated areas, repeated cuttings for domestic uses have transformed many of these magnificent stands into stunted scrub forests. The Dipterocarpaceae family in Myanmar is represented by some 14 Dipterocarpus species, 8 species of Shorea, 6 species of Hopea and a solitary species of Pentacme siamensis. A phenomenal occurrence of the dipterocarps growing in mixture with Pinus merkusii can be found in Kayah State which is an unusual admixture of species. Next to the teak bearing forests, undoubtedly the dipterocarp forests are one of the important timber bearing forests in the country. The rapid decline of the dipterocarp resource in many neighbouring countries is boosting the export demand for an increasing variety of Myanma dipterocarps. An evaluation of appropriate management systems to be applied to the evergreen forests is now high in the forest management planning agenda, as hitherto these forests have been managed under the Myanma Selection System with varying results.

Pine forests occur naturally in the Shan and Kayah States, the Chin Hills as well as in Kachin State. Pines are locally used and occasionally exported. There are two conifers in common use namely are Pinus merkusii and P.insularis. Pinus armandii, P.roxburghii and P.wallichiana occurring at high altitudes in remote areas are not freely used. An exotic P.caribaea is now planted on a trial basis for the paper industry. Pine forests also provide turpentine for the local industries.

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Amount of illegal timber during 2000-2013

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Annual allowable cuts other hardwoods production by decades per years

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Annual allowable cuts teak production by decades per years

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Area of Plantation

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Distribution of Forest-covered Area by State and Division - PFE Area

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Distribution of Forest-covered Area by State and Division - PFE Share

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Distribution of Forest-covered Area by State and Division

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Forest Cover (% of Total Area) (1990-2010)

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Forest cover area

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Forest cover by year

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Forest cover from 1975 to 2010

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Forest cover share

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Forest Types cover in Myanmar - 1995 (ha)

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Forest Types Cover in Myanmar - 2013 (ha)

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Workbook Forest Data 1

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Workbook Forest Data 2

Protected Areas and ASEAN Heritage Parks in Myanmar

View map View map & data
  • Value of seized illegal timber rising yearly

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 6 October 2017

  • Local log exporters concerned about foreign competition

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 4 October 2017

  • Conservation helps rare Myanmar tortoise population rebound to 14,000

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 28 September 2017

  • Thousands Protest UNESCO Project at Mt. Hkakabo Razi

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    Source: The Irrawaddy

    Published: 28 September 2017

  • Residents to protest expansion of Khakaborazi park

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 27 September 2017

  • Myanmar plans to boost bamboo production with foreign technology

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 26 September 2017

  • Bear dies after wandering into Magwe village

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 26 September 2017

  • Number of visitors to Wingabaw Elephant Camp increased by 80 %

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 25 September 2017

  • 230 tonnes of timber seized at docks

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 24 September 2017

  • Yangon’s ‘misery menu’ features exotic meat for sale

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 22 September 2017

  • Bamboo annually earns US$5 million

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 21 September 2017

  • Sagaing wildlife sanctuary to shrink

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 21 September 2017

  • Myanmar ponders ways to make bamboo forests more profitable

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 20 September 2017

  • Forest Department announces to re-enter into contract for perennial rubber tree

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 19 September 2017

  • Continuous research on star tortoises conducts in Shwesettaw Wildlife Sanctuary

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 18 September 2017

  • 1,000 illegal teak logs seized

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 15 September 2017

  • Opinion: People’s Consideration for Natural Environment

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 9 September 2017

  • Sagaing Region may be home to world’s largest teak tree

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 5 September 2017

  • UK to invest $115m to set up private teak plantations

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 4 September 2017

  • 88 turtles released in Chindwin

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 1 September 2017

  • Ministry launches disaster risk reduction, drone mapping team

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 30 August 2017

  • Over 1,800 illegal logs confiscated in Sagaing this month

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 29 August 2017

  • Soft shell turtles threatened with extinction

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 29 August 2017

  • Number of orphaned elephants being cared for at camp in Bago Region grows to five in a year

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 28 August 2017

  • Workshops to promote tiger conservation

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 25 August 2017

  • Two Himalayan black bears freed

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 24 August 2017

  • Hoolock gibbon survey planned for October

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 24 August 2017

  • Government urged to make Gwa Island a nature reserve

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 22 August 2017

  • Wild elephants poaching rises in southern Rakhine, Ayeyawady Region

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 17 August 2017

  • Endangered Asian black bears to be released into Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 16 August 2017

  • Government plans to arm foresters to fight smugglers, illegal hunters

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 15 August 2017

  • Third parties can monitor hiring of service providers

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 15 August 2017

  • EIA accuses MTE of stepping back from reform commitments

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 11 August 2017

  • Wood-based fuel makes up 81% of fuel consumption in Myanmar

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 10 August 2017

  • A journey into the forest

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 8 August 2017

  • Wild elephants poisoned in Ayeyarwaddy Region

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 6 August 2017

  • Myanmar sign agreement on establishment of Asian Forest Cooperation Organisation

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 2 August 2017

  • Bago Yoma gets ecotourism

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 31 July 2017

  • Timber industry faces challenges in the voluntary partnership agreement process in forest governance

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 31 July 2017

  • Article: Wilderness areas are being destroyed but the World Heritage Convention can protect them

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 28 July 2017

  • Timber group replaces sub-contractors with service providers

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 28 July 2017

  • Denmark to donate US$5 million for mangrove conservation project

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 26 July 2017

     

  • Ministry to boost ecotourism this fiscal year

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 25 July 2017

  • Myanmar Learns about Reducing Deforestation from Brazil

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 24 July 2017

  • Kachin State’s Indawgyi Lake gets UNESCO designation

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    Source: Mizzima

    Published: 22 July 2017

  • Govt makes K5.3 billion from sale of seized timber in 2016-17

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 14 July 2017

  • New wildlife sanctuary to emerge in forest reserve

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 11 July 2017

  • DFID-funded grant program to target businesses in four sectors

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 11 July 2017

  • Article: Golden Bamboo that not only greens the environment but also support the economic growth of the country

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 10 July 2017

  • Star tortoises in Minzontaung sanctuary number more than 2000

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 10 July 2017

  • Endangered white-winged wood ducks spotted in Htamanthi wildlife sanctuary

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 3 July 2017

  • Forestry bill threatens 15-year sentence

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 22 June 2017

  • Ethnic minorities share information on deforestation

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 20 June 2017

  • MPs urge to speed up afforestation to avert impact of climate change

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 1 June 2017

  • Article: Khakaborazi —– a high potential to become a First Natural World Heritage

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 1 June 2017

  • 400,000 hectares of forest disappear annually

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 26 May 2017

  • Article: Petrified rocks should be protected

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 22 April 2017

  • Canadi Hill in Chin State needs preservation

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 20 April 2017

  • Article: Earth Optimism: Helping Wild Elephants Where They Roam

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 18 April 2017

  • Smithsonian Scientists Discover Two Colorful Geckos in Vanishing Myanmar Rainforest

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 17 April 2017

  • Vice President U Myint Swe calls for more forestry protection

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    Source: President Office, Myanmar

    Published: 11 April 2017

  • Forest reserves to be recognised as wildlife sanctuaries

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 7 April 2017

  • Forest lands development closely scrutinised

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 7 April 2017

  • Revised environmental policy to be released

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 6 April 2017

  • 119 forestry officials punished

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 16 March 2017

  • Ecotourism plan still faces challenges to implement

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 15 March 2017

  • Bamboo under threat of extinction in Sidoktaya

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 13 March 2017

  • Inkhinebwan mountain range in Kachin State designated as national park

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 13 March 2017

  • Star tortoises released in Minsontaung sanctuary

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 6 March 2017

  • Majority of mammals in Kayin State in trouble

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 3 March 2017

  • Independent centre reports on nation’s natural resources

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 1 March 2017

  • 170 tonnes of timber seized in Sagaing

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 25 February 2017

  • Government to help preserve cultural heritage

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 23 February 2017

  • Myanmar makes record seizures of illegal timber

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    Source: Frontier Myanmar

    Published: 23 February 2017

  • EU-standard forestry agreement to be set up

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 20 February 2017

  • 40,000 tonnes of illegal timber seized since April

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 17 February 2017

  • Article: Norway supports the move towards closer regional cooperation in Asia

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 17 February 2017

  • Land owners face prosecution over illegal timber, says Yangon Forest Department

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 16 February 2017

  • Restoration of Alaungtaw Katthapa National Park

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 16 February 2017

  • Sagaing minister accuses land owners of logging

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 13 February 2017

  • State Counsellor receives WWF-US Board Member and Country Director of WWF

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 11 February 2017

  • Smuggled logs near 1,000 tonnes

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 9 February 2017

  • Threats to South-East Asia’s treasures

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 7 February 2017

  • Vice President U Henry Van Thio urges conservation of state bird, tree in Chin State

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    Source: President Office, Myanmar

    Published: 6 February 2017

  • Meinmahla Kyun wildlife sanctuary designated Ramsar site

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 3 February 2017

  • Timely stitches could save Myanmar forests

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 3 February 2017

  • Meinmahla Kyun Wildlife designated as third Ramsar

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 2 February 2017

  • 571 tonnes of illegal timber seized in three separate raids at Yangon port

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 1 February 2017

  • Myanmar to take part in Hamalia mountain range conservation project

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    Source: The Global New Light of Myanmar

    Published: 29 January 2017

  • Myanmar Launches the UN-REDD National Programme to Protect Forests and Contribute to Global Efforts to Address Climate Change

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    Source: UNDP Myanmar

    Published: 27 January 2017

  • Myanmar to launch elephant conservation project

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 19 January 2017

  • Elephant poaching on the rise: minister

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 17 January 2017

  • မြန်မာ့ဆင်များထိန်းသိမ်းရေးလုပ်ငန်းစီမံချက် ရေးဆွဲခြင်းဆိုင်ရာ အလုပ်ရုံဆွေးနွေးပွဲကျင်းပ

    သတင်းအပြည့်အစုံကို ဤနေရာတွင် ဖတ်ရှုပါ

    သတင်းရင်းမြစ်။   ။ ပြန်ကြားရေးဝန်ကြီးဌာန

    ထုတ်ဝေသည့်နေ့။   ။ ဇန်နဝါရီလ ၁၆ ရက်၊ ၂၀၁၇။

  • Resource ministry plans reduction in export eligible timber

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 6 January 2017

  • Value of external trade through normal trade declined by over US$490million

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 29 December 2016

  • Officials seek UNESCO ‘geopark’ status for Mount Popa area

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 20 December 2016

  • Scientists discover over 150 new species in the Mekong

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 20 December 2016

  • Myeik’s mangroves in danger: FFI

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 6 December 2016

  • Government to tackle legal timber docs

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 30 November 2016

  • Myanmar cracks down on illegal wildlife trading from Mandalay-Muse

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 30 November 2016

  • WWF says roads, dams, tiger farms, poaching threat to tiger survival in Greater Mekong region

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    Source: Xinhua

    Published: 23 November 2016

  • Private firms still barred from logging next year

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 16 November 2016

  • KNU, WWF ink pact

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 11 November 2016

  • Myanmar to re-assess 21-year old forest policy

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    Source: Xinhua

    Published: 9 November 2016

  • Cautionary tails: Learning from neighbours to counter species loss in Myanmar

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 8 November 2016

  • China-funded reforestation effort slated for Magwe

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 7 November 2016

  • Environmental conference participants demand govt reject Myitsone dam

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 7 November 2016

  • Can Myanmar’s hydropower study truly be for the people?

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 7 November 2017

  • Features: In the Delta, a rapidly disintegrating mangrove forest

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    Source: Frointier Myanmar

    Published: 7 November 2016

  • Forestry bosses to study resources

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    Source: Eleven

    Published: 4 November 2016

  • Wild elephants destroy paddy field near Ngwe Saung Beach

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    Source: Ministry of Information, Myanmar

    Published: 3 November 2016

     

  • Three Mandalay projects delayed pending review

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 1 November 2016

  • Myanmar seizes over 27,000 tons illegal timber in 7 months

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    Source: Xinhua

    Published: 31 October 2016

  • Hydropower commission tipped to advise nixing Myitsone: members

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 28 October 2016

  • Road construction halted as govt urges felling of fewer trees

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 26 October 2016

  • Environmental ministry to launch ‘forest farms’ initiative

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 25 October 2016

  • ပြုန်းတီးသစ်တောနေရာများကို အသစ်ပြန်လည်စိုက်ပျိုးရန်အတွက် သစ်တောဦးစီးဌာနမှ ၁၀ နှစ် စီမံချက် ရေးဆွဲပြီးစီး

    သတင်းအပြည့်အစုံကို ဤနေရာတွင် ဖတ်ရှုပါ

    သတင်းရင်းမြစ်။   ။ မဇ္စျိမ

    ထုတ်ဝေသည့်နေ့။   ။ အောက်တိုဘာလ ၂၂ ရက်၊ ၂၀၁၆။

  • Hungry poachers target great hornbills in Magwe Region

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 20 October 2016

  • ဥရောပနိုင်ငံများသို့ မြန်မာကျွန်းသစ်တင်သွင်းသည့် ကုမ္ပဏီ ကိုးခု ဥပဒေချိုးဖောက်ကြောင်း EIA အဖွဲ့ထုတ်ပြန်

    သတင်းအပြည့်အစုံကို ဤနေရာတွင် ဖတ်ရှုပါ

    သတင်းရင်းမြစ်။   ။ မဇ္စျိမ

    ထုတ်ဝေသည့်နေ့။   ။ အောက်တိုဘာလ ၁၈ ရက်၊ ၂၀၁၆။

  • FREDA plans Yangon tree project

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    Source: Myanmar Times

    Published: 14 October 2016